Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Weather Radio - A Must for Every Home

2017 severe weather reports.
We have already had a good bit of severe weather this season. Radar technology has improved with the advent of dual Doppler capabilities, and lead times for warnings have improved as well. Yet, there have already been 27 fatalities from tornadoes this year, and we are just getting into the peak of the season.

In the aftermath of storms we often see people interviewed who say "It struck without warning". What that statement usually means is "I wasn't aware of a warning", because in most cases a warning was not only issued, but issued with enough time to take shelter.  Everything from the forecast to the warning can be perfect, but if people aren't receiving the information then that information can't help them.

Outdoor warning sirens are exactly that. Their purpose is to warn people outside of impending severe weather, and are not intended to alert folks who are at home with the windows closed, the AC running, and the TV turned up.

The rapid development in phone technology means that those with cell phones can receive alerts of severe weather, provided the phone is on and you have it with you. What about in the middle of the night when you are sound asleep and a severe thunderstorm or tornado warning is issued?  The most reliable means of getting those warnings in time to take cover is a weather alert radio.

The NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards web page contains everything you need to know about NOAA Weather Radio, including consumer information about the radios, how to program your radio, and listing of radio frequencies and their status by county for every state. NOAA weather radio is even established in Puerto Rico, America Samoa, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the N. Mariana Islands.

Weather radios come in portable models that you can take with you to outdoor events or other activities like hiking or camping. Some have crank and/or solar recharging capabilities. Desk models run on AC power with battery backup.  The prices of radios range from $25 to $135, with most desk models in the $40 to $75 range. One feature you should seriously consider is a radio with SAME (Specific Area Message Encoding) capability.  This allows users to receive messages only for their designated county or counties of interest rather than the entire broadcast area. This is especially nice at night, as your radio alert will not be activated for areas you have not selected. On the basic radios without SAME, any alert issued for any area covered by a specific transmitter will be triggered on the radio. Note that the weather radio program is officially the NOAA All Hazards Weather Radio. In addition to severe weather, NWR also broadcasts warning and post-event information for all types of natural, environmental, and public safety hazards.
My weather radio - ready and waiting.

There are only seven VHF frequencies used for NOAA Weather Radio transmissions in the U.S.

Weather radio frequencies in the U.S.

NOAA All Hazards Weather Radio coverage in the U.S.

NOAA Weather Radio broadcasts are also available via live streaming over the web.  A group of home weather station operators, website owners, CoCoRaHS volunteers, and spotters have developed a web site to live stream NOAA weather radio broadcasts across the country. This will not replace a weather radio in your home since there is no alerting capability, but it is a convenient way to access the broadcasts for other parts of your state or the country. The list of stations also include three from Canada. Visit for more information and to listen to live streams.

NOAA Weather Radio stations current available for live streaming on

Weather radio receivers will also work in Canada. Environment Canada, the government agency responsible for producing official forecasts, operates a network of "Weatheradio" transmitters which generally operate on the same frequencies as the U.S. NOAA Weather Radio network. More information on weather radio in Canada can be found here.

A weather radio should be in every home, just like a smoke detector. It should be located in a spot where you can hear it at night, preferably in the bedroom. Without being too dramatic - you're life could depend on it.

Thursday, April 13, 2017

Hail - It's in Our Name

CoCoRaHS' annual Hail Week is coming to a close. If you have been following this week's messages of the day you have seen how to measure hail, report it, and how to make a hail pad. Hail is a fascinating phenomena and there is a lot of information available if you want to learn more about it. The CoCoRaHS Hail page  has some information, and you can find a lot more information at Living With Weather- Hail on the Midwestern Regional Climate Center website.

This year's hail season was off to an early start with quite a few large hail events from late February on. Normally probabilities for significant hail very low at the end of February and only begin to ramp up in mid-March to early April. Here are the climatological probabilities for significant hail from the the NOAA Storm Prediction Center. The center of the high probabilities moves north through April and May, reaching a peak in late May. By early August probabilities are diminished and continue to diminish into early fall.

This year, hail has been frequent. So far CoCoRaHS observers have submitted hail reports on 65 of 102 days so far this year,just slightly ahead of last year's pace.  This map is a compilation of hail reports for the year to date from the Storm Prediction Center.

There have been some impressive and damaging storms so far this spring. What's caught my attention are the number of significant hail events (hail 2 inches or more) that have been reported.

There have been some impressive and damaging storms so far this spring. What's caught my attention are the number of significant hail events (hail 2 inches or more) that have been reported.

Hail photo credit Keri Bentley

 More baseballs in Texas on March 26.

Hail in Double Oak, TX on March 26.
Credit: @WxChaserBryan on Twitter

A nice assortment of hail sizes in eastern Illinois on March 20 .

Finally, not all hail falls as nice round balls. Here is a photo of some spiked hail that fell in Bolivar, TN on March 27.

Hail in Bolivar, TN on March 27.
Photo by Cynthia Thrasher Dickerson

Measuring hail is a core mission of CoCoRaHS, and the separate hail reports on the CoCoRaHS web site allow you to submit your hail information. There are a few things you need to know before measuring hail, and you can find that information in our "Measuring Hail" training animation. Here is a hail size reference and measuring guide you can download, print, and laminate for use. The rule on the bottom is to scale and fits on a 3x5 card. Make multiple copies and keep one at home, in the car, or at work.  

Monday, March 27, 2017

Web Page with GOES-16 Images - COD NexLab

Since my post last week about the GOES-16 satellite I became aware of a web site that features the latest images from this satellite. The College of DuPage (IL) NexLab site has an experimental page where you can view the latest images from GOES-16, including looping of images.

The NEXLAB Experimental Satellite page opens with the latest visible image displayed. So, if you are opening this at night there won't be anything to see. You can select one of the other images (Water Vapor, Infrared) to view. You can also select one of the sectors list on the left-hand side of the screen to view. The sector images for the visible images are at 0.5 km resolution, while the  resolution for the remaining images are 2 km.

Here is the visible image of the continental U.S. Sunday afternoon at 12:52 p.m. CDT.

Here is the corresponding surface weather map for 1:00 p.m. CDT Sunday.


You can clearly see the circulation around the low pressure system over the Midwest.If you look at the enlarged satellite image (click on image to open full view) you can see the thunderstorms developing along the warm front in Oklahoma.

Note that at this time you can only access this page by the direct link above. There is no link from the NexLab main page or the Satellite/Radar Products page though I was told that there will be a link in the near future. While you're at it check out some of the other weather analysis tools on the web site.

Wednesday, March 22, 2017

A New Weather Eye in the Sky

GOES-16, atop a Atlas V booster, leaves the launch pad.
Credit: NOAA
Last fall members of the meteorological community anxiously awaited the launch of a new weather satellite, one that could revolutionize weather satellite science. Dubbed the GOES-R at that time the satellite was equipped with state-of-the-art imaging equipment and array of sensors. GOES-R was originally scheduled to launch on November 4, 2016. We collectively held our breath in early October when Hurricane Matthew clobbered eastern Florida as it moved north just off the coast. Hurricane Matthew had a close encounter with the Kennedy Space Center. The satellite was safely secured and escaped harm, but damage to Cape Canaveral and at the Kennedy Space Center forced the launch date to November 16. On November 3 the launch date was pushed to November 19 because of a minor issue with the Atlas V booster. Finally at 6:42 p.m. EST on November 19 the GOES-R was launched into space.

Credit: NOAA
On November 29 GOES-R reached geostationary orbit at an altitude of 22,000 miles and officially designated GOES-16. Testing and calibration of the satellite systems began at that point and is continuing. Though not yet officially operational (data is preliminary and undergoing validation), GOES-16 images and products seen so far are nothing short of spectacular.

Not only is GOES-16 monitoring our terrestrial weather, it is also monitoring space weather. There are sensors on board for observing solar flares (Ultraviolet and X-Ray Irradiance Sensors, the Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI), monitoring the flux of charged particles associated with the Aurora Borealis (Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS), and a new, faster magnetometer for monitoring the earth's magnetic field.

The cool stuff related to terrestrial weather includes the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), the first lightning detector in geostationary orbit. It monitors for lightning flashes in the Western Hemisphere, both in-cloud lightning strikes and cloud-to-ground strikes.

The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) is the primary imaging instrument on GOES-16. It will provide three times more spectral information, four times the spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the current system. The increase of both speed and resolution will be a huge advantage to forecasters. Mesoscale (1000 x 1000 km) spatial resolution will be 2 kilometers, with updates as often as every 30 seconds. This will have a tremendous positive impact on the ability of forecasters to monitor and respond to developing weather situations.

You may have already seen images from GOES-16 on the web. The difference on visible images is astounding, like the difference between your old TV and the latest HD TV image. Here is one of those images.

Visible image from GOES-16 on the morning of March 7, 2017. This is one image captured from a loop.
Credit: CIRA/RAMMB at Colorado State University

This image is one from a loop of images assembled by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA)/Regional and Mesoscale Modeling Branch at Colorado State University in Fort Collins. The amount of detail is amazing. These high resolution images from GOES-16 have even captured the smoke from small wildfires. For a full-size high resolution of this image and the image loop, click here.

NOAA emphasizes that "the GOES-16 satellite has not been declared operational and its data are preliminary and undergoing testing." The switch to operational status should occur this summer or in the fall.

If you would like to view the different types of GOES-16 satellite images there is a nice sampling of GOES-16 images and videos at this link.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

Winter 2016-2017 Recap: The Winter that Mostly Wasn't

We put the wraps on climatological winter (December-February) yesterday, although winter weather is not out of the question in many parts of the country over the next two to four weeks. Climatological winter was capped off by very springlike weather, including a severe weather outbreak in the central U.S.

We can take a quick look at what winter has been like across the country using the latest map of the Accumulated Winter Season Severity Index. Most of the country has experienced a mild winter, with the only notable exception the northwestern U.S. and far northern New England. Omaha, NE and Des Moines, IA are on track for record mild winters. Note that the AWSSI continues to be accumulated until the last day with a maximum temperature of 32°F, the last day with measurable snow, or the last day with measurable snow on the ground. The factors that are keeping other locations from having record mild winters are snow early in the season and several periods of cold weather in December and January.

The Accumulated Winter Severity Index as of March 1, 2017.
The maps of the average temperature departure from normal for December through January depict very much the same pattern. Average temperatures for the period were above normal from the Plains to the east coast. Colder than normal temperatures occurred in the northwestern quarter of the country.

The map of maximum temperature departures mimics the mean temperature map, but the map of minimum temperature departures shows a larger area of warmer than normal temperatures, particularly in the southwestern U.S.

On a monthly basis it's clear that February was a huge contributor to the warmer than normal winter. Final numbers aren't all in yet, but many locations in the central and eastern U.S. will find that this February will be the warmest on record.

Click on map to see larger version

The precipitation map does not contain too many surprises. Precipitation in most of the western U.S. was much above normal. It was a much drier than normal winter in a bulls-eye in the central U.S. extending from northern Arkansas through Missouri and Illinois. It was also dry in the mid-Atlantic and Florida.

Snowfall during climatological winter was well above normal from the northern Plains to the Sierras, and near to above normal in much of New England. Snow season (July 1- June 30) is not yet over and many locations could yet see some substantial snowfall in the spring. There definitely has been a snow drought in much of the central U.S. Chicago did not have any snow cover in January or February for the first time in the 146 years.

CoCoRaHS observations were included in both the precipitation and snowfall maps.

Ice cover on the Great Lakes is only 10 percent of what it usually is on this date. The average coverage on March 1 is about 43 percent, and as of today it was 4.5 percent.

Ice cover on the Great Lakes as of 2/28/2017

The warm weather in February, especially the last ten days of the month, is particularly problematic for vegetation this spring. The warm weather coaxed trees and bushes to bud and plants to emerge from the soil much earlier than normal. The U.S. National Phenology Network data shows that "spring" is almost three weeks ahead of schedule as far north as the Ohio Valley. The risk of freezing weather is pretty much a sure thing for the next several weeks, and the possibility of damage to emerged vegetation is rather high.

Finally, the severe weather season got off to an early start in the Midwest yesterday with an outbreak of severe weather across the Midwest. Several strong tornadoes caused significant damage and several fatalities in Illinois, Missouri, and Indiana. The severe threat moved east today with severe weather from new York south through Alabama.

Wednesday, February 22, 2017

A February Like No Other?

This week of unseasonably and crazy warm weather is like kryptonite to a winter fan like myself. It paralyzes me from doing much at all. The calendar says February, but outside it's all April. It's not just one day which you briefly enjoy before the reality of winter sets in again. It's been a whole week, and we have two more days to go here (at least in the Midwest). Outdoor projects that were suspended in late fall are trying to pull me outside but I'm still in winter mode and trying to resist. Fortunately, or unfortunately depending on your viewpoint, it's all coming to an end soon.

This stretch of warm weather has been unusual not just in its intensity and duration. For a large portion of the central U.S. to have warm and sunny days in winter is very unusual. Typical warm-ups in winter tend to occur in advance of large weather systems moving out of the Rockies. Strong southerly winds will pull warm air well northward at times, but it is often moisture-laden and we end up with mild but  cloudy or partly cloudy days. Combine that with stiff winds and yes, it's mild, but not the kind of days we have enjoyed this week. This week of late fall-like (or spring-like, if you prefer) is clearly something most of us have never experienced in February.

Earlier this month it was downright hot in the southern Plains. High temperatures in northern Texas and southwestern Oklahoma were in the 90s, and it was confirmed one location topped out at 99°F! In February!

Maximum temperatures across Oklahoma on February 11, 2017.
Credit: Oklahoma Mesonet

Record high temperatures were recorded from New Mexico to the southeast coast. While that was occurring, New England was digging out of another snowstorm.

The exceptional warmth is not limited to the central part of the country, of course. Even Florida has been relatively warm. Miami, FL has not yet recorded a single day below 50° since December 1. This has never happened in the Miami period of record which dates back to 1896. (Thanks to John Morales, Chief Meteorologist at WTVJ NBC-6 in Miami for tweeting this fact.)

This current warm spell began late last week in the central and southern Plains and then expanded east  over the weekend and this week. The animation below shows the temperature map at 2:00 p..m CST starting on Friday, February 16 through today.  The area of green (55°F contour) was associated with the upper level system that moved across the southern U.S. last weekend.

 Here is the temperature map for 2:00 p.m. CST today. Note that it was warmer in Milwaukee, WI (69°F) than in Miami, FL (67°F)!

This map shows where record highs had occurred or were close to occurring today as of 2:00 p.m. CST.

While the warm weather is most welcome by many people, it's not without some problems. The very early warmth and its duration is coaxing plants to respond well before we are out of the danger for freezing weather.

The USA National Phenology Network, which like CoCoRaHS utilizes volunteers observers, tracks the start of the spring season across the country using models called the Spring Leaf and Bloom Indices. The Spring Leaf Index is a synthetic measure of these early season events in plants, based on recent temperature conditions. The index allows the NPN to track the progress of spring across the country.

The latest Spring Leaf Index map shows that the changes seen with the warm weather are about two to three weeks ahead of normal. It's still February, and much of the country is a long way from seeing the last freezing temperatures.

This maps below shows the distribution of the date of the earliest last freeze in the spring, and the median date of the last freeze in the spring.

Ten years ago, in the spring of 2007, much of the central U.S. experienced a very warm end to March and first days of April, with numerous record high temperatures and record high minimum temperatures recorded. High temperatures in the low to mid 80s were measured as far north as central Wisconsin. Unfortunately a major winter storm the first week of April pulled in cold air that resulted in a hard freeze across most of the Midwest. Subzero readings occurred in northern Minnesota. Many plants and fruit trees had budded in the warm March weather, and the hard freeze ended up extensively damaging fruit trees, grapes, and other plants. You can read more about the weather the first week of April 2007 here.

Enjoy this unusual warm weather while it lasts.

Meanwhile, noon temperatures today in west-central Alaska ranged from -10°F to -40°F.

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

Winter? What Winter?

Today marks the start of the last third of winter, climatologically speaking. The winter statistics will be calculated over the months of December through February, even though in many areas winter weather can continue through March and into April. So, where are we at with a month go go in official winter?

One quick way to look at the status of the winter season is to look at a map of the Accumulated Winter Season Severity Index (AWSSI). The AWSSI (pronounced "aww-see") is an index that scores the impact of cold and snow (both snowfall and snow depth) occurring during the winter season. The index was developed by Barbara Mayes-Boustead with the National Weather Service in Omaha, NE, and yours truly. Scores fall into one of five categories ranging from Mild to Extreme. Here is the map as of January 31 showing how winter is progressing across the country.

The categories of the Accumulated Winter Season Severity Index as of January 31, 2017

As you can see from this map, this winter has been particularly severe in the northwestern quarter of the nation from the Pacific Northwest down through the northern Rockies and into the Northern Plains. Over the rest of the country, winter so far has been mild.

Here are the temperature departures for the period from December 1 through January 31. The areas of the country that have experienced warmer than normal temperatures also tend to have below normal snowfall.

Snowfall, as you no doubt have heard, is heavy across the western U.S. More snow is expected over the next several days as another storm slams into the coast.

As of this morning, snow cover is extensive over the western U.S. and across the northern tier of states into New England.

We can look at the progress of the AWSSI though the season by plotting the score for each day through thee season. Individual storms or snowy periods and cold periods can be seen by the sharp changes in the AWSSI plot, The shading on the chart shows the envelope of all AWSSI scores for that location and the five categories for that station. For example, here is the plot for Redmond, OR.

Redmond's normal seasonal snowfall is around 16 inches and annual precipitation is 8.90 inches. Oregon State CoCoRaHS Co-Coordinator Jim Jones, who lives in Redmond, reports that he has measured a total of 47.9 inches of snow since December 1, and 4.39 inches of precipitation, about half the annual total..

In contrast to the extreme winter weather in Redmond, let's take a look at the AWSSI this winter in Utqiaġvik (formerly Barrow), Alaska. The AWSSI is at a record mild level in Utqiaġvik. As of today the score was 1570, and the previous record low on February 1 was 1965. At the rate the winter is going it is not likely to climb out of record mild territory.

You an follow the AWSSI through the rest of the winter and learn more about it at the Midwestern Regional Climate Center's AWSSI page.

Tuesday is Groundhog Day, so Punxsutawney Phil will allegedly tell us how much winter is left (but you get a better forecast just flipping a coin). Four to six weeks more of potential winter weather (i.e. until the beginning or middle of March) is a pretty good bet in almost any year. Sorry, Phil.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

No Such Thing as a Free Lunch

Monday and Tuesday were rare dry days in California, at least compared to the past month. The recent series of storms with heavy rain and mountain snows wiped out the drought across northern California, but left the southern half of the state relatively untouched. The improvement in the drought situation in the past year is remarkable, though most of this improvement occurred relatively recently. While the storms the occurred the past two weeks were welcome, they also brought too much of a good thing.

The Drought Monitor for California for January 12, 2016 (left), and January 10, 2017 (right).

Even with the drastic improvement in the drought situation, approximately 13 million California residents are still affected by severe to extreme drought. Much of the agricultural Central Valley is still in extreme drought. Over a thousand wells are dry. There may be some improvement in the southern half of the state over the next week as a series of storms slam into the west coast, but drought may not be what residents will have on their mind.

While the rain and snow in the northern half of the state were beneficial in many ways, it also brought its share of misery and damage. The frequent and torrential rains quickly overran the ability of rivers and streams to carry the water within their banks. Flooding and flash flooding was widespread. Runoff rapidly filled reservoirs that were on their last legs to the point that many had to open floodgates to let the excess water out. Heavy rain over southern California the next seven days will likely result some flooding and the threat of landslides. To be sure, central and southern California need the rain, but not all at once. For there to be real relief from the drought impacts the water needs time to seep into the ground to recharge groundwater, a long, slow process. In these heavy rain situations far more water runs off into rivers, stream, and storm drains than soaks into the ground.

Rainfall totals for the past 30 days have been impressive, with totals in the northern half of the state ranging from 12 to 31 inches, with most of that coming in the past two weeks. Snow in the Sierras was equally if not more impressive. The CoCoRaHS observer at CA-PC-1, Soda Springs measured a total of 202 inches of snow since December 18 (that's 16.8 feet)!

Daily snowfall for the CoCoRaHS station CA-PC-1, Soda Springs, CA for the last 30 days.

The snow was so heavy and intense that a number of ski resorts had to close because of road closures and the sheer amount of snow. Heavy, wet snow brought down trees and powerlines.  With many northern reservoirs now full, snow is more important. The Sierra snowpack supplies about one third of California's water supply. It's the snow piling up in the winter and then slowly melting through the spring and summer that keeps water flowing.

Snow water equivalent in the Sierra range is 164 percent of average as of January 13, ranging from 132 percent of average in the Northern Sierra, 162 percent of average in the Central Sierra, and 197 percent of average in the Southern Sierra. An important statistic is the percent of the April 1 snow water equivalent average. The snow that remains as of April 1 is the snow that melts during the warm season to supply water to California. As of January 13 the percent of April 1 average was near to above the record.

The precipitation outlook for the next seven days is both good and ominous for California. A series of storms now strung out over the Pacific will make landfall in the next week, The outlook is good in that much needed rainfall should reach central and southern California this time around. In northern California, more heavy rain over swollen rivers, full reservoirs, and saturated ground will likely cause another difficult period for northern California residents.

Even with the rain so far and more expected, it will not necessarily mean the end of drought worries in California. There is still the rest of the winter and spring to get through, and the challenge will be managing the water that has fallen so far, and that yet to come.

Thursday, January 5, 2017

The Nine Habits of Highly Effective CoCoRaHS Observers

Resolutions for self-improvement usually accompany the start of the New Year. I'm not typically one for resolutions but I'm going to give it a try this time around. It's been about 3 months since my last blog post and I won't bore you with the reasons/excuses of why it's been so long. It's a new year and I am going to try and get back on track. So, if there are topics you would like to me write about or revisit again let me know - ideas are always welcome.

Now to the topic for this blog post. A few months ago I was thinking about what characteristics make an effective CoCoRaHS rainfall observer and jotted down a list. I recalled seeing the book "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People" published in 1989 by Stephen Covey, and that inspired the title of this post.

So, here's what I've come up with for the nine habits of highly effective CoCoRaHS observers.

Report every day

One of the attributes of a good climate record is consistent, regular observations. Consistent observations over a period of time help identify patterns and trends. Precipitation varies a lot in time and space, so regular observations are needed to capture these variations. Effective observers realize this and make an effort to have a report for each day. It usually is a daily report, but sometimes is an amount that spans two or more days (a multi-day report).  The bottom line is that at the end of the month or end of the year, each day is accounted for by an observation.

Report zeros

This goes hand-in-hand with #1. Effective observers know that zero is a number and a measurement. Zero is NOT equivalent to no measurement. A missing measurement does not mean "it did not rain". It's just missing. Effective observers also report zero for snowfall and snow depth when there is no snow or no snow on the ground, even when it's too warm for snow.

Make sure to have the correct observation time

Effective observers make sure to enter the correct observation time if it is different from the default time on the entry form. Sometimes life gets in the way and we can't always make our observation when we need to. The correct observation time helps those using the precipitation data to interpret it correctly.

Check submissions AFTER hitting the Submit button

Effective observers almost always remember to check their observation after they have submitted it on the CoCoRaHS web site. They easily do that by scrolling down the page past the Message of the Day to view their observation. They quickly catch the typos (for example, entering 10.00 instead of 0.10) and make what they entered is what they intended.

Keep a local record of observations

Even the most conscientious observer can get sidetracked and forget to enter the observation on any given day. Effective observers keep a separate written record of their observations for a period of time as a backup "just in case". They also realize that they may be contacted by their local coordinator or the CoCoRaHS staff about a past observation if an error is suspected or an observation needs to be verified. A written record can help answer those questions.

Review observations at the end of the month

Effective observers check their observations at the end of the month to be sure that all days are accounted for and there are no obvious errors. This is where that written record can save the day.

Periodically review the training materials

Everyone can use a refresher from time to time. It helps to review certain topics, like snow measurement and reporting prior to the winter season. Effective observers review the training animations and other training information on the web site from time to time as needed.

Follow correct procedures

Effective CoCoRaHS observers use the 4-inch standard rain gauge, make their observation at about the same time each day, and submit their observations using the correct form (Daily Report for daily observations, Multi-Day Report for multi-day accumulations). They know when and how to submit a Significant Weather Report or Hail Report.

Enjoy what they do

CoCoRaHS observers are typically highly motivated and enjoy what they do. They realize that many users count on the observations they make and report every day. They are dedicated and enthusiastic. Many recruit family and friends to join and/or help, and strive to never miss an observation.

Happy New year, everyone!